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Scope of Practice in the U.S.

The biggest disputes about who can provide dry needling services in the U.S. have been between the Licensed Physical Therapists and Licensed Acupuncturists over the past 15-20 years. This list is where PT's can (44 states + D.C.) and cannot (7 states) practice dry needling. The year listed after the state represents when dry needling was adopted into the physical therapy scope of practice. As we get more information on which states allow dry needling by DC's, AT's, and OT's we will update accordingly. To our knowledge there are no state restrictions for the practice of Acupuncture. However, based on data from 2018, greater than 50% of licensed acupuncturists (LAc's) practice in 3 states (California, New York, & Florida) and 75% practice across 10 states (CA, NY, FL, CO, WA, OR, TX, NJ, MD, MA). For AT's it remains vague where they can practice dry needling. It is reported that they can practice in numerous U.S. states but without calling each state board it remains unknown. 

Physical Therapists May Perform Dry Needling:

Alabama (2008)

Alaska (2012)

Arizona (2014)

Arkansas (2009)

Colorado (2005)

Connecticut (no ruling)

Delaware (2014)

Dist. Columbia (2009)

Georgia (2011)

Idaho (2019)

Illinois (2017)

Indiana (no ruling)

Iowa (2016)

Kansas (2017)

Kentucky (2004)

Louisiana (2011)

Maine (2016)

Maryland (1984)

Massachusetts (no ruling)

Michigan (no ruling)

Minnesota (no ruling)

Mississippi (2012)

Missouri (no ruling)

Montana (2011)

Nebraska (2016)

Nevada (2012)

New Hampshire (2002)

New Mexico (2000)

North Carolina (2010)

North Dakota (2013)

Ohio (2007)

Oklahoma (no ruling)

Pennsylvania (no ruling)

Rhode Island (2012)

South Carolina (2004)

South Dakota (2018)

Tennessee (2015)

Texas (2008)

Utah (2014)

Vermont (2015)

Virginia (2007)

West Virginia (2012)

Wisconsin (2009)

Wyoming (2009)

Physical Therapists May Not Perform Dry Needling (2019):

California

Florida

Hawaii

New Jersey

New York

Oregon

Washington

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